While many buildings look similar at first glance, the underlying materials affect their cost and durability, especially in the event of an emergency. Building codes classify all structures, from type 1 to type 5, and this type of building reveals crucial information, such as fire resistance. Some modern buildings have become stronger and cheaper to build. However, manufactured materials, such as artificial wood and synthetic plastics, burn easily, causing rapid collapses and additional hazards for firefighters.
The most fire-resistant buildings, type 1 structures, are built with concrete and protected steel, which can withstand high temperatures without collapsing. By contrast, Type 5 structures, the least resistant to fire, are lightweight and made of combustible materials that collapse soon after they catch fire. Type 1 buildings are fire-resistant skyscrapers. Overall, these buildings measure more than 75 feet tall, including high-rise homes and commercial spaces.
Because of their materials and design, type 1 buildings are considered to be the safest in the event of a fire, since they can withstand high temperatures for long periods of time. Many new or recently renovated commercial structures, including large stores and large shopping centers, are type 2 buildings. While these buildings generally have fire extinguishing systems, they are prone to collapsing when flames expose their metal roofs to high temperatures. Type 2 buildings include many non-combustible materials, but they still pose risks because they are more likely to collapse.
Schools, businesses and houses with fireproof walls and wooden ceilings are distinguished as type 3 buildings. While older buildings tend to have conventionally framed roofs, newer buildings offer lightweight roof systems. Although type 3 buildings contain fire-resistant materials, their roof systems burn out quickly and their fire-cut beams pose a hazard to firefighters. Construction workers must understand how different construction materials and techniques affect a building's resilience to fires, earthquakes and hurricanes.
Just as workers must prepare for accidents during construction, they must learn how their work contributes to the future safety of the building. Like type 1 buildings, type 2 buildings contain non-combustible walls, partitions, columns, floors and roofs. Although these structures usually contain fire extinguishing systems, they are usually not protected with fire-resistant coatings and are prone to collapse. They usually contain metal floors and ceilings with masonry walls or sloping slabs.
There is a list of 26 items found in Section 603 that refers you to other sections of the code that allow you to use the materials listed in this section. Many commercial buildings, such as shopping malls and large stores, use type II buildings. All building materials, including interior walls, frames, floors, roofs, and exterior walls, are made of non-combustible materials, such as metal and concrete blocks. The size requirements are similar to those of Type III and, although construction materials are classified as non-combustible, they provide less fire resistance than Type I, and a fire that spreads would likely cause more damage.
Knowing the different types of construction promotes safety during and after the construction of a building. But V-type construction buildings are always smaller than a building of the same use built with a more stringent type of construction. The International Building Code (IBC) classifies buildings into five types of construction, and each has different parameters. Newer school buildings, shopping centers and recently renovated commercial structures usually belong to this type of construction.
Each type of building has specific features that stair companies must be familiar with in order to ventilate the building as safely and efficiently as possible. Determining which of the five types of construction your project belongs to is a key decision as part of the analysis process with your construction manager and building designer. This may not make sense as to the purpose of this when you look at Chapter 6 alone, but if you consider Chapter 5, you will see that you are allowed to have a larger building with additional fire protection without fully transiting to a fireproof building such as Type II. Some type 1 buildings have climate control systems and self-pressurized staircases to prevent fires from spreading.
Type V construction is one in which the structural elements, the outer walls and the inner walls are made of any material permitted by the code, combustible or fireproof. Sprayed buildings of the same type of construction and used as non-sprayed buildings may be larger. The most common types of roof systems in a commercial type 3 construction environment include paneled roof systems and parallel cable trusses. .
Leave a Comment